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16th International Conference on Alkali-Aggregate Reaction in Concrete: Volume 1

May 31 – June 2, 2022
Lisbon, Portugal
Editors: Antonio Lopes Batista, Antonio Santos Silva, Isabel Fernandes, Luis Oliveira Santos, Joao Custodio and Carlos Serra

Conference Themes:

AAR and coupled AAR/DEF mechanisms
Factors affecting AAR
Preventive measures
Testing for potential AAR
Diagnosis, evaluation and prognosis
Monitoring and non-destructive methods
Structural effects of AAR and coupled AAR/DEF
Modelling (micro, meso and macroscale)
Repair and remedial measures
Cases of deterioration and management

THEME 1 – AAR and coupled AAR/DEF mechanisms
C. Milanesi
F. Locati
S. Marfil
Questions and answers about alkali-carbonate reaction seen through the lens of osmotic mechanism
G. Geng
Z. Shi
B. Lothenbach
A. Leemann
E. Wieland
R. Dahn
A micro-XAS and XRD study of the crystalline alkali-silica reaction products
M. Bagheri
B. Lothenbach
A. Leemann
K. Scrivener
Dissolution of ASR-reactive aggregates and the effect of Al on dissolution rate of amorphous silica at a high pH
D. Schovanz
F. Tiecher
N. P. Hasparyk
S. C. Kuperman
Influence of Delayed Ettringite Formation (DEF) on physical and mechanical properties of concrete
K. Huenger
M. Kositz
M. Danneberg
Influence of alkali supply from outside on the dissolution behavior of aggregates
S. Barbotin-Albinski
Z. Shi
E. Boehm-Courjault
A. Leemann
K. Scrivener
Characterization of synthetic ASR products by TEM and preliminary comparison with on-field early stage products
B. Godart
J. Wood
Interaction of DEF and AAR, a review
J. Xu
D. Lu
Z. Xu
Reaction behaviour of dolomite powder in Portland cement pastes cured at different conditions
S. Hanehara
T. Oyamada
Influence of maximum temperature at early age of concrete and R2O and/or SO3 content on DEF expansion of concrete
THEME 2 – Factors affecting AAR
O. Mielich
H. Reinhardt
H. Ozkan
Creep and strength of pavement concretes containing alkali sensitive aggregates after climate simulating tests
B. Lothenbach
Z. Shi
Solubility data for alkali-silica reaction products
N. Courtois
C. Cau Dit Coumes
P. Gaveau
A. Poulesquen
J. Haas
S. B. H. Hassine
D. Bulteel
Quantification of the extent of alkali-silica reaction occurring in cemented waste packages based on simplified model systems
A. LeemannImpact of different added alkalis on concrete expansion due to ASR
K. Huenger
M. Danneberg
S. Herold
J. Acker
Stress conditions in quartzite and their quantification by Raman spectroscopy
A. Rodrigue
J. Duchesne
B. Fournier
M. Champagne
B. Bissonnette
Assessment of alkali-silica reaction related expansion and damage in alkali-activated slag/fly ash concretes
S. U. Einarsdottir
R. D. Hooton
Factors affecting the alkali release from concrete aggregates
J. Liaudat
C. M. Lopez
I. Carol
Experimental study of the effects of mechanical restraints on ASR expansions in concrete
T. A. Martius-Hammer
J. Lindgard
B. Pedersen
A study on ASR in high strength lightweight aggregate concrete
A. Gholizadeh-Vayghan
F. Rajabipour</ td>
Physicochemical properties of synthetic alkali-silica reaction (ASR) gels
M. B. Santos
J. de Brito
A. S. Silva
Potentially alkali-reactive recycled aggregates – Their effect on concrete’s mechanical characteristics
O. Olajide
M. Nokken
L. Sanchez
A review on the role of moisture and temperature in alkali silica reaction (ASR)
THEME 3 – Preventive measures
J. J. Berezosky
F. Locati
D. Falcone
S. Marfil
G. C. dos Santos
Use of a zeolite-bearing pozzolan to inhibit the reactivity of a sand from Argentina
L. V. Larsen
R. Kofoed
R. A. Barbosa
B. Grelk
K. K. Hansen
L. H. Jensen
S. B. Hansen
Controlling ASR in concrete by surface treatment – Field performance investigation
B. Godart
L. Divet
The new version of the French recommendations to prevent disorders due to Delayed Ettringite Formation
B. M. Pedersen
E. Rodum
M. Haugen
J. Lindgard
Prevention of ASR by use of low alkali OPC and silica fume. Field and lab studies from the Maridal culvert and the Storo bridge in Oslo, incl. assessment of residual expansion
M. Thomas
S. Monkman
The carbonation of recycled concrete aggregate affected by alkali-silica reaction
G. Kaladharan
T. Szeles
F. Rajabipour
Novel alkali silica reaction inhibitors for concrete
Z. Jiang
Q. Yang
Y. Liu
Experimental investigation on alkali activity and prevention measures of Low-grade metamorphic rock aggregates
L. Antunes
L. Sanchez
D. Souza
P. Fransham
The use of wood ash as supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) to mitigate the alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) in concrete
M. J. Tapas
K. Vessalas
P. Thomas
V. Sirivivatnanon
Dissolution behaviour of SCMs in alkaline environment and mechanisms behind ASR mitigation
E. Nsiah-Baafi
M. J. Tapas
K. Vessalas
P. Thomas
V. Sirivivatnanon
Mitigation of ASR using aggregate fines as alternative for SCMs
D. J. de Souza
L. Sanchez
A. Biparva
L. Antunes
The use of self-healing technology combined with supplementary cementing materials to mitigate the Alkali-Silica Reaction distress
A. Rossetti
G. S. C. dos Santos
D. D. Falcone
E. F. Irassar
Studies on illitic calcined clays as possible inhibitors of the Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR)
A. S. Silva
A. B. Ribeiro
L. Divet
Prevention of internal sulphate reaction in concrete. Long-term results of the effect of mineral additions
T. Oey
E. La Plante
G. Falzone
Y. Hsiao
A. Wada
L. Monfardini
M. Bauchy
J. Bullard
G. Sant
Calcium nitrate: A chemical admixture to inhibit aggregate dissolution and mitigate expansion caused by alkali-silica reaction
A. K. Saha
P. K. Sarker
Evaluation of the potential ASR of ferronickel slag aggregate and its mitigation by fly ash
A. Bourdot
V. Thiery
S. Cuchet
D. Bulteel
Experimental modeling of burnt oil shale impact towards ASR
F. Weise
M. Fladt
M. Wieland
Internal water-repellent treatment – a novel strategy for mitigating alkali-aggregate reaction in concrete pavements
I. Sims
A. Poole
Despite Stanton: AAR from denial to remedy in the UK, Europe & the World


B. Fournier
J. Duchesne
A. Tagnit-Hamou

Impact of NaOH addition on the ASR expansion of ternary concrete incorporating Ground Glass
M. R. P. Carvalho
E. M.R. Fairbairn
R. D. T. Filho
Prevention of alkali-aggregate reaction by using fiber reinforced concrete
E. T. Bueno
C. Ferraro
J. Paris
K. Clavier
K. Riding
T. Townsend
Performance of Alternative Pozzolans – Alkali Silica Reactivity
M. J. Tapas
L. Sofia
K. Vessalas
P. Thomas
W. South
V. Sirivivatnanon
K. Scrivener
The ability of SCMs to mitigate ASR in cements of higher alkali contents assessed by pore solution method
K. S. T. Chopperla
J. Ideker
Performance of Portland-limestone cements with supplementary cementitious materials to mitigate alkali-silica reaction
B. Boyd-Weetman
P. Thomas
V. Sirivivatnanon
J. Nairn
Alkali thresholds in concrete; the balanced alkali approach in ASR mitigation
K. M. De Vasconcelos Moreira
P. V. Gomes Oliveira
E. Pontes de Deus
A. E. B. Cabral
Effectiveness in ASR mitigation: incorporate SCM during the Portland cement manufacturing or in the concrete production?
THEME 4 – Testing for potential AAR
W. Hermerschmidt
C. Muller
M. Bohm
Investigations on the influence of sand and testing conditions on the expansion behaviour of concretes in ASR tests
K. S. T. Chopperla
J. Ideker
A study on the effect of aggregate type on pore solution composition
N. Sinno
M. Shehata
Ways to evaluate alkali-silica reactivity of mineral fillers
H. Zeitlhofer
B. Achleitner
G. Maier
C. Bos
M. Peyerl
S. Krispel
ASR testing versus field experience in Austria
E. Nsiah-Baafi
K. Vessalas
P. Thomas
V. Sirivivatnanon
Protocols for investigating the reactivity of aggregates and alkali thresholds for ASR prevention
M. Kositz
K. Huenger
F. Weise
Regression analysis of ASR expansions and silica dissolution in the presence of NaCl
B. J. Wigum
O. Andic-Cakır
P. Nixon
I. Sims
A. Poole
B. Fournier
J. H. Ideker
J. Lindgard
Global research and collaboration on alkali aggregate reactions in concrete: ICAAR-conferences and RILEM TCs achievements
B. J. Wigum
G. J. Einarsson
Testing of Icelandic aggregates and various binders – laboratory vs. field; A decade of results and experiences
B. J. Wigum
J. Lindgard
RILEM Technical Committee 258-AAA. Development of a performance-based testing concept
M. A. Glinicki
D. Jozwiak-Niedzwiedzka
A. Antolik
K. Dziedzic
K. Bogusz
Application of RILEM test methods for alkali-silica reactivity evaluation of Polish aggregates for concrete road structures
I. Fernandes
A. S. Silva
V. Ramos
D. Soares
Sequel of the IMPROVE Project: petrographic analysis of the concrete from concrete prims tests
E. Krutt
S. Pirskawetz
W. Wallau
B. Meng
Development of an automated 60 °C Concrete Prism Test
T. F. Ronning
J. Lindgard
S. K. Bremseth
Alkali boosting in ASR performance testing – Will extra addition of alkalis to the mix design candidate reflect expansion behaviour of cement clinker alkali variation?
T. F. Ronning
J. Lindgard
I. Borchers
ASR performance testing concepts – RILEM AAR-10, AAR-11 and AAR-12
I. Sims
K. Hassan
M. Reid
A. Smith
M. B. S. Al-Kuwari
Assessing AAR potential of processed Wadi Aggregates in Qatar, Arabian Gulf
K. de Weerdt
P. Hemstad
H. Justnes
T. Ostnor
T. F. Ronning
J. Lindgard
Fundamental study on ASR kinetics – effect of temperature on aggregate reactivity and pore-water composition
K. Yamada
Y. Kawabata
T. Kawakami
Y. Sagawa
Determining the pH of concrete pore water for alkali-wrapping considering alkali dissolution from aggregate
K. Yamada
Y. Kawabata
T. Kawakami
Y. Sagawa
S. Ogawa
AW-CPT as an ideal laboratory potential expansion test for ASR with constant alkali content and maximized water supply and the design of an alkali solution for wrapping
P. Stukovnik
V. B. Bosiljkov
M. Marinsek
Long term monitoring of alkali carbonate reactions (ACR)
G. Hartmut
F. Schmidt-Dohl
Investigations on reaction kinetics in solution experiments to prevent the alkali-silica reaction
L. Sofia
T. Chappex
K. Scrivener
Impact of storage conditions on expansion due to ASR
THEME 5 – Diagnosis, evaluation and prognosis
E. Giannini
T. Drimalas
Diagnosis and prognosis of ASR in an airfield pavement
A. Zahedi
L. F. M. Sanchez
M. Noel
Effect of confinement on AAR-induced expansion and damage
A. Bezerra
G. Andrade
L. Sanchez
M. Fraser
Automated assessment of AAR damage in concrete in progress
V. Lanza
P. Alaejos
Evaluation of the presence of ettringite in concrete structures affected by alkali-silica reaction
A. Zahedi
Y. Zhu
L. Sanchez
B. Fournier
Microscopic assessment of alkali-silica reaction (ASR) affected recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) mixtures derived from construction and demolition waste (CDW)
D. J. De Souza
L. F. M. Sanchez
Multi-level assessment of the ASR damage including Vickers’ hardness in concrete
R. Ziapour
C. Trottier
L. Sanchez
Assessment of AAR-induced expansion and damage through the direct shear test
F. Shrimer
J. Balinski
Stories from the front: AAR testing gone awry
N. Zubaida
A. Zahedi
L. Sanchez
P. Rivard
Evaluation of the potential of residual expansion in concrete affected by Alkali Aggregate Reaction
T. Chappex
J. Hammerschlag
P. Kronenberg
Correlation of mechanical fatigue testing and semi-quantitative optical microscopy analysis for the robust diagnosis of field ASR damaged structures
A. Antolik
D. Jozwiak-Niedzwiedzka
U. Diederichs
Microstructural evaluation of the real concrete pavements with potential Alkali Aggregate Reaction signs
THEME 6 – Monitoring and non-destructive methods
H. Nakagawa
T. Taniguchi
M. Matsushima
An investigation of ultrasonic method to monitor expansion of concrete due to ASR
S. Iliopoulos
A. Lamberti
K. Schildermans
S. B. H. Hassine
Monitoring of ASR affected samples using different NDT-techniques
S. Tayfur
C. Yuksel
O. Akar
N. Alver
O. Andic-Cakır
Recent advances on the monitoring of mechanical properties of ASR-affected concrete by utilizing acoustic emission method
A. J. Taylor
B. Thomas
R. G. Venn
Moisture conditioning of concrete prism specimens and monitoring their length changes using digital image correlation
B. Elmi
J. P. Lebet
Determination of ASR expansion potential using permanent GPS stations: Experimental device and first results
F. Tiecher
D. Schovanz
N. P. Hasparyk
Reliability of a non-destructive method for identification of self-compacting concrete degradation by ASR
C. O. Rivas Blanco
M. I. Avilés Flores
E. M. Fernández Reyes
Measurement of microstructural damage in ASR affected concrete samples by using micro-ultrasound imaging
A. L. Bournas
N. Pyrialakou
S. Nikolaou
K. Katsifarakis
K. Pilakoutas
Experimental study on the structural response of columns with ASR and their repair using textile reinforced mortar
E. Pujadas
L. Sancho
P. Castro
L. Pel
L. Wadsö
Monitoring water content in ASR affected concrete under different environmental conditions using NMR imaging
S. Chatterjee
J. Thompson
K. Folliard
Nondestructive assessment of in-situ ASR gel stiffness in concrete pavements by continuous wavelet transforms of surface waves
M. R. Ali
T. Matsushima
H. Noguchi
Micro-mechanical examination of ASR-induced expansion in cementitious materials via AFM technique
R. E. S. Souza
S. Chatterjee
J. Thompson
K. Folliard
Evolution of ASR-gel stiffness over time and its spatial distribution in concrete through a novel nondestructive test method using surface waves
THEME 7 – Structural effects of AAR and coupled AAR/DEF
A. Rossetti
S. Weinschenker
D. Falcone
G. Dos Santos
Influence of a reactive sand on the mechanical performance of HPC beams
L. Matta
S. Roy
R. Seracino
Near surface mounted CFRP strengthening of large-scale ASR-affected concrete bridge members under sustained loads
H. P. Jágr
D. Lechner
C. Portella
R. Rodrigues
S. Wüest
G. Antonicelli
J. M. Henault
D. Monette
A. Leemann
J. Voit
S. Dürrenmatt
Towards a design methodology for the determination of the residual lifetime of concrete structures affected by AAR
A. Meschke
P. Svidron
L. Piechnik
E. Tasche
On the role of non-local ASR-induced damage in structural deterioration – Finite Element modeling and damage identification by inverse analysis
A. Duchesne
N. Zubaida
L. Sanchez
Characterization of ASR-affected structures under load by using Acoustic Emission
D. R. Forgeron
P. Ropert
N. Surace
Numerical simulation of AAR-affected structures considering mechanical-chemical behavior and damage propagation
S. A. E. Jarrah
P. Rivard
Microcrack characterization in alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) affected concrete structures using microscopic observations and water absorption tests
M. Ben Haha
B. Lothenbach
A. Leemann
Thermodynamic and microstructural modeling of ASR in concrete structures
M. Thiemicke
T. Schossig
D. Henning
T. Matschei
R. Trettin
Recent findings on the interaction between DEF and ASR
J. Matos
A. I. Ribeiro
S. Melo
M. Sousa
A. B. Ribeiro
Reinforcement corrosion in concrete affected by AAR
M. G. Raza
K. Tobita
D. Mishra
K. Matsushita
S. T. Huang
Influence of ASR on reinforced concrete piers
E. R. Fiol
R. I. Barros
F. A. Branco
Advanced computational techniques for structural analysis of 3D concrete structures
L. Fernández Altable
N. García Núñez
A. Soto
E. Vázquez
F. Puertas
Performance of an alternative for alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) in concrete structures
M. Sierens
L. C. Sousa
F. A. Branco
R. I. Barros
Experimental analysis of the mechanical behavior of AAR affected reinforced concrete members under cyclic actions
L. Shafieifar
A. Azad
L. M. Matuana
C. L. Chiu
Evaluation of the effect of FRP confinement on AAR/DEF affected concrete
A. Haxhibeqiri
M. Tahiri
H. Haliti
F. Ajdini
Effect of AAR and freeze-thaw action on bond between steel and concrete
THEME 8 – Modelling (micro, meso and macroscale)
J. Liu
G. Sant
L. Zhang
T. Kim
N. Neithalath
A model to simulate long-term ASR distress in highly heterogeneous concrete based on constituent’s properties
S. Monfardini
M. Bauchy
G. Sant
Reactive molecular dynamics simulations of ASR gel growth in concrete
D. Ghazanfari
C. C. Ferraris
M. Balonis
G. Sant
Predicting the reaction and transport of alkaline species through unsaturated particulate materials
M. Panagiotou
A. L. Bournas
M. Stangl
B. Boulay
S. Nikolaou
G. Papadakis
K. Pilakoutas
Modelling alkali-silica reaction (ASR) expansion in concrete and comparing with ultrasonic testing
F. Rajabipour
M. Liu
J. Trout
T. Whitestone
S. Pour-Ghaz
K. Amini
M. Balonis
A non-classical thermodynamic model to predict the critical humidity for alkali-silica reaction (ASR) in concrete
S. Wang
G. P. T. M. Van Zijl
W. Gao
A new reactive transport model for alkali-silica reaction (ASR) in concrete
J. D. Monteiro
M. J. F. Monteiro
G. Weiss
A. Shcarlat
N. K. Gupta
A. Raj
C. P. Souza
S. Goel
R. Fernandes
A. Deheeger
T. E. Martinez
S. Mukhopadhyay
T. J. Mizutani
K. A. Paine
H. J. H. Brouwers
M. M. Reda Taha
C. H. Yu
C. Strege
A. Chamok
J. Rodrigues
Machine Learning applications in concrete alkali aggregate reactions (AAR)
R. E. Huber
J. Yang
F. Weiss
M. Balonis
A. Leemann
Potential reactive and incompatible assemblages in the NIST/CEMDATA thermodynamic databases
THEME 9 – Repair and remedial measures
S. White
A. Megyesi
Hydrodemolition as an effective repair method for ASR affected structures
L. F. M. Sanchez
M. Fraser
S. E. Patterson
S. W. Nicolay
B. Fournier
Effectiveness of lithium-based ASR treatments for ASR-affected concrete
S. A. E. Jarrah
P. Rivard
F. Berthold
A. Schokker
G. Beaudoin
N. Zubaida
S. Bonneau
P. Labonte
S. Gariepy
The reactivity of alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) gel for concrete structures subjected to electrochemical treatments
S. Hoshino
Y. Sato
R. Fujii
Y. Kuroki
T. Nishikawa
Recent activities of Japan Concrete Institute (JCI) Committee on Diagnosis and Repair Methods for Concrete Structures Deteriorated by Alkali Aggregate Reaction
M. Cousin
N. Van Herck
ASR-MA: Roadmap to prevent ASR through Maintenance Activities in the Netherlands
H. Sunayama
R. Fujii
K. Ogawa
S. Sakai
S. Miyaji
Long-term behavior of reinforced concrete column repaired by carbon fiber sheet
S. Lopez
N. O’Flaherty
C. E. Majorana
J. G. Cabrera
Rehabilitation of a decommissioned nuclear power plant in Scotland affected by ASR. Feasibility study for diamond wire cutting
F. Berthold
L. Hernandez
N. Ziadi
A. Poursaee
R. Ziapour
L. Sanchez
Long-term monitoring of electrochemical realkalization (ER) treatments to mitigate AAR
R. J. Saucier
L. F. M. Sanchez
Effect of low-frequency damping on ASR damaged concrete
N. Chinchon-Payan
A. Puertas
A. Blasco
M. Alonso
J. Borrachero
J. Monzo
L. P. Singh
S. Mishra
Protection and repair of concrete affected by AAR. Prevention of swelling by incorporation of nanosilica into aggregates
P. Rivard
S. Jarrah
F. Berthold
Mitigation of ASR by means of electrochemical treatments: mechanisms and efficiency
M. Fraser
L. F. M. Sanchez
J. O. Jato-Espino
B. Fournier
Lithium-based ASR treatments in Quebec: overview of laboratory studies and field applications
K. Sobolev
S. Sultana
J. Radlinski
Development of protective coatings to mitigate Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) in concrete using engineered superhydrophobic and photocatalytic nanoparticles
A. H. M. Ahmad
M. F. Nuruddin
M. F. M. Zain
Experimental study of repair materials for structures affected by Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR)
B. Godart
B. Fournier
G. Grimal
F. Desmettre
J. Duchesne
Performance-based specifications to prevent alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) – 20 years experience in France and Quebec
C. J. Forbes
J. P. Le Roux
S. Grimal
P. Rivard
J. Duchesne
L. F. M. Sanchez
Mitigation of ASR by using supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) with low Ca/Si ratio: a Quebec perspective
K. Amini
M. Maleki
R. Thomas
S. Pour-Ghaz
K. Amini
K. Kirisits
R. J. Myers
Concrete durability enhancement using self-healing microcapsules
E. Vazquez
S. Garcia-Nunez
M. Martinez
G. Gomez
A. Barrera-Diaz
P. Balzer
J. Wiegmann
In-situ re-alkalization of structures affected by ASR using electrochemical techniques
L. Pontiroli
G. Buzzi
ASR mitigation by the use of colloidal silica in a siliceous limestone